Q. In Romans chapters 9, 10 & 11, was Paul speaking of Judah or the northern kingdom of Israel? Paul quotes Hosea & Elijah in Romans, prophets to the northern kingdom. These two prophets had virtually no dealings with Judah during their ministries. If Paul is speaking of Jews in Romans 9, 10 & 11, why would he quote prophets that never prophesied to Judah?
The context of Romans 9, 10, & 11 deal with why God has rejected the Jews as His chosen people.
Paul begins by telling of his own interest in his own nation (9:1-5), his willingness to be completely separated from God for eternity if it would bring the Jews back to God and then he proceeds to tell why God was just in rejecting Israel (9:6-29). Not all who are born Jews are the Israel that God promised eternal lfe to. The Jews had failed to understand the Word of God, the Word of God has not failed. It’s not being of Abraham’s seed that will save you, it’s obedience. Paul uses the Old Testament to illustrate God’s sovereign power of choice, just as he has determined of his own will that man shall be saved through His Son, Jesus Christ.
Chapter 10 reveals why Israel was rejected. They were rejected because the sought justification by another means than that provided by God (10:1-4), then the two methods of justification are explained (10:5-13) they are told how they should call on Him (10:14-15), and then the Jewish objection to the gospel method of justification is addressed (10:16-21). The Jews believed that since so few accepted the Messiah, Jesus must NOT be the Messiah. All heard and could believe but they chose not to do so (10:17-21)
Chapter 11 reveals that the rejection of the Jews was neither total or final (11:1-36). The reasons their rejection was not total is given (11:1-10), their rejection is not final (11:11-24), their fall brought an advantage to Gentiles (11), the Jews will one day turn to Christ, this will be like life from the dead, one day God will graft in the branches that are now broken off, the rejection of the Jews should be a warning to the Gentiles (12-24) mercy to all is the ultimate purpose of God (25-32) and the hardening of Israel will last only until the fullness of the Gentiles comes in (25-26), man stands in amazement at the great wisdom and love of God (33-36).
The Jews of the First Century had available to them copies of all of the prophets including those cited by Paul. Let me remind you that Paul is speaking by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, therefore, his interpretation of Old Testament prophets is without error. Paul simply uses incidents in the Old Testament that were well known to the Jews of the First Century to illustrate God’s plan to bring salvation to both Jew and Gentile.